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          Study  Notes for the Orisha Òshóòsi

 

                    Compiled by Alashe Michael Oshoosi, Omo L'Ode Ti'wale* 

                                                                                          *                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                            © Michael omo'Oshoosi, 2015

                                                                                                                                                                        (Michael F. Wright Ph.D., J.D.)

                                                                                                                                                                                All Rights Reserved

                   (*"son-owner of the authoritative ashe of the Great Hunter has come home").                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Oshoosi: Where Venerated and Etymology of the Concept:

 

The orisha Oshoosi is venerated in Nigeria and in Brasil (as Oxossi), in Cuba (as Ochosi), in Benin/ Dahomey (as "Aje") and in the United States (as Oshoosi). In many other countries and local regions this orisha exists under various avatars: for example, as Enrinle--who is sometimes seen as an alter-ego of Oxoosi--in Brasil,  and "Odede" in Cuba and Nigeria. Other aliases are described below. Yor- uba and proto-Yoruba culture go back about 9,000 years in the areas west of Lake Chad so it is no

surprise that west and central Africans informed KMT culture--especially pre-dynastic culture--

from the far west and deep south of KMT. (See Endnote #1 and my web page, below, entitled "Ori- shas, Neteru & Kemet"). 

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Some of the roots  of  the name and qualities of  this  orisha have analogues in ancient Egypt (KMT) where he is associated with the gods Shu and Osiris ("0-Shu-Osi"). There is a rulership title (or a "Horus" name) for this "Osiris" figure of the night sky. That name is "Orion"--the great Hunter of

the cosmos.  He is observed in our cosmos as the largest of the easily perceived visible con­stella- tion.  This rulership title--this "Horus name" for Osiris of the night sky--contains the root word "ori"  akin to  "Horus" (Horis)  and now found in the term "Orion." ("Ori" in Yoruba simultaneoulsy means "head" (as "king" of one's destiny and intelligence). Thus "Orion's" constellation--this Great Cosmic Hunter--is seen in the person of an avatar of the greater-still Osiris. Please see the essay in this website called "Oshoosi Affirmation" (4th paragraph) for an exposiiton of these ideas.

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It is for this reason that Osiris' (i.e., Orion's or Oshoosi's) sister and loyal wife, i.e., his "dog"--in the good sense of the term, meaning loyal--Isis also serves as  this hunter's "Dog  Star" companion (Sirius or  "Sopdu" or"Sopdet" in KMT) the brightest binary star system in the night sky. She is seen, to the southeast of Orion, as eternally in close proximity and loyal wife to Orion (i.e., to Osir- is, Oshoosi) her husband, the Hunter-ruler of the night sky. This constellation was visible in the northern hemispheric parts of the African  night sky  for nine-months  each year starting in mid- August. This gestation period was also associated with the annual flooding of the river Hapi (the "Nile"). And the three 'belt' stars  of Orion  were called "Sahu" in ancient KMT--the neter or god of cosmic morality and ethics. And the model for the configuration placement of the three great pyramids (merkuts) of the Giza plain in KMT.

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"Osiris" is a Greek name (which is to say, a "Coptic" name) for Ausar (Osiris). He was both a fertility god--depicted as  green in color--and the founder  of  Nilotic  civiliza­tion, religions  and  institutions along the banks of the Nile. Later, he became the master of the nightly afterworld and the judge of resurrection and reincarnation. In this role. Osiris' color is black--for a rising out of the black void

of stillness  and  introspection. Similarly, Oshoosi  is the  great  Hunter-god  provider of the Yoruba pantheon who is responsible for the nurturance and protection of society and the founder of all of its primal social institutions. In Brasil, Oshoosi's color is also tiel-green. And, in Yoruba religion, Oshoosi is the founder of the very concept of religious congregational worship. 

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"O-sho-osi" also  has  multiple iterations in the Yoruba language  with several  slighly different,  but  related  meanings. (Please  see  the  page  entitled "Oshoosi Affirmation," supra).

 

 

Salient Qualities, Traits, and Anthropological Roots


Oshoosi is a hunter, a scout, and a frontiersman or pioneer that locates the best places in the for- est,  along the rivers, in the mountains or elsewhere to exploit natural resources so as to found a civilization, to nurture  and supply  it, to create its  institutions,  and to "police" it. This is because, as a hunter/ warrior he is also a tracker, and bounty hunter, a skilled observer, and a night watch- man. Hence his ashe is also associated specifically with institu­tions that confine animals (e.g., zoos, preserves) and people (e.g. hospitals, asylums, sanctuaries and jails); institutions that keep order.    

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With these qualities, Oshoosi can point to the quickest route in nature to find and obtain animal resources and plant foods and medicines and the quickest and most direct guide for civilization to be established (along side the riverbanks usually) being, as he is,  the master of the arts of prov- ision, safety and survival. And, by similie, he also can guide or direct the individual most effectively along the path of his or her solutions in life; particularly to that person's spiritual-ideal (whatever opportunity path he or she may have had "Eshu" to open up for this purpose). 

                                                                                              *

It is good to look at it this way: Elegua presents us with the roads, options and opportunities (or blocks them). Ogun can cut down or smash down the major obstacles along the road. Oshoosi, however, can get one to one's goal on the correct road in the most effective way because Oshoosi knows all of the roads through the wilderness of our conditions in life. If you do not get to your goals  effectively  you may  never reach  your desitination at all or, or worse yet, you  may get am- bushed on the road. (If you do get delayed, waylaid,  or lost on the route it is Shango that teaches you how to fight on the road. But, in the end, it is Obatala that knows the reason for the road and who can answer whether or not you should have been on the road in the first place)!         

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The prototypical progenitor of Oshoosi was his father "Odede" ("Ode" implies 'open spaces, fron- tiers and "openess"' in  character--especially  in  the  characters  of  all of the warrior  hunters like Ogun, Oshoosi, and (Er)inle in Yoruba). "Odede,"  the wizened old hunter, shepparded  the people from the hunter-gatherer clans and river-bend (trading posts) encampments into agricultural civ- iliations based on eating, storing and trading grains--farming-- among other things.

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Urbanization, more complex economies  and  the  emergence  of  warrior  and  dominant  classes turned  much  of  the commons into "private preserves" and, eventually, into "private property." This evolution required the building of institutions for civil administration (regulating "rights" and "stations") in social life and propogated rules, ethics, religions and a "social contracts" congruent with their needs to retain power, to maintain blood-lines, and  to maintain  control over  the pop- ulace (to  the  exclusion of competitive "others"). Odede, the archetype of Oshoosi, like Osiris, is, by analogy, the guide into this 'new frontier' of urban and class-based "civilization"; of its organiz- ation and order.  

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One greets an Oshoosi shrine--which can be very elaborate or as simple as a pure bramble bush--and the orisha himself with the shout "Oshoosi O(ooo)!" And the response is "Ode mata! (meaning, alternatively, "the Hunter who never misses!" or "Great Hunter, do not shoot me")!

 

In this sense, especially, as "Ode"--as "owner" of free-ranging "outside" ashe of Hunters or fisher- men--was also considered the patron of individual and social psychology;  that is, the owner of its precursors of magic, plant medicine charms, sorcery and wizardry  in the period of the advent of the agricultural economies and pastoralism. The first instance of antagonistic "political econom- ic" classes also evolved in these pre-classical societies, to wit:  slavery, where the first class strug- gle of all was  fundamentally between  that  of the slave owner and the slave. 

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Evolution of the Concept of a "Good Character" (Iwa Pele), Knowledgeable Character (Iwa 'Re 'Re) and Their Desirability in Early Societies

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Thus Odede  is  also a guardian of "good  and  personable  character" (iwa pele)  as  he,  like his  son Oshoosi, is  a "cool" orisha  of  white  cloth  ("Asho'fun'fun" or "Orisha 'fun'fun").  Oshoosi  is  the spokesperson  (yes, there is  a female "road," "pool," or "camino" of Oshoosi  along with multiple male types) for the orisha "Obatala"--the  father of most  prominent  orishas  and  the  icon of wis- dom,  forbearance,  health,  and  good  fortune. Oshoosi  is  the  ruler's crier, i.e his Gbede Gbeleke A ('binding upliftment comes to exalt and make conspicuous') or his Akede Feyo ( 'spokesman  with

fidelity'). The term Agbaroso fun-ni  and Abede also applies to his spokesman's traits (clean cutting, -straight-to-the-point-words).

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Oshoosi's house is painted white. And it is a home of comfort for the needy and the oppressed. Itis said that originated philanthropy Oshoosi is trustworthy; the originator of congregational worship and the icon of purity and sanity. (see the traditional--"isheshe alagba aiye"-- Yoruba religion's treatment of Oshoosi at:

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                                      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BC33Zqyefb4&t=1

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Next, but not least, the hunters and their foraging wives were the sources of divination; all divinat- ion. "Divining" or "reading," writ original, essentially meant inspecting the tracks (and remains: the entrails or livers) of animals, or the ways of insects and birds to determine what was, and what was likely to be, the state of affairs in that savannah or wooded-area in the not-to-distant past and fut- ure. Even gathering and foraging had its divinatory aspects for "reading" the environment and its

spirits; as women were to also discover. They could tell what would be the circumstances of suvival for all  who operated  in that area, in that time-period.  Families  and clans  in that  period also had ways of  propritiating  and  making-offerings to  the  putative  spirits  of  the  wild  life  and  fauna around  them.  I  suppose  that  ritual--if  only  as reciprocal mime--is as old as song-making, tool-making and as old, perhaps, as dialogue itself.  

 

Oshoosi represents the best in the conscientious ideal of these original clans. As such--with these qualities, properties, combined--he can  be relied on to most directly guide one to one's "conscien- ce" or "eriokan"  (a term derived from "eri" or "ori"--"head" and "okan" for "heart" and soul) in or- der to monitor one's personal integrity. The central Africans who later became Nilotic (Nile) Afri- cans evolved the concept of the deities "Ma'at" and "Sahu" (in KMT) to embody the elements of "good character"; ethical and gentle. And judgements (or being a judge/constable) are roles that come naturally with the ashe of Oshoosi.

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The Nature of Hunters

 

Successful hunters and trappers not only had keen intellects, perceptions and tenancity, but per- sonal  courage  was  expected of  them as well. Indeed  in some areas  the most  revered  of  them hunted at night, sought game the larger the better, and would often set out alone for weeks at a time. While a hunter may stalk game, he cannot successfully chase it. Therefore his cunning lies in

inducing his prey to use its own nature to come to where he will be; to use it own nature against it.

 

This orisha's ashe lies, then, in ambushing, stalking, sniping and stealth; followed by the ability to deliver lightening fast death with an arrow or rifle. He is a master of in-fighting, snares and traps and no one fights with him and wins. His is a lethal intelligence; an enemy's worst nightmare (liter- ally) as Oshoosi is associated with the unfathomable snares and hidden traps. As an ijala chanting warrior, the ashe  of an omo-Oshoosi (a child of Oshoosi) includes becoming possessed  in  the ex- ecution of certain martial arts that members of  that  caste learn.  And as the only  orisha that is gifted to "astral travel," he can dispose  of  his game  or  enemies in their dreams. Hence, hiding is useless for these, the ill-fated prey of Oshoosi, for he "sees" from above in tree tops and astro-

traveling through the atmosphere.

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Olofi, another  Yoruba name for God, arranged for human beings---through the fashioning work of Obatala (and Oduduwa)--to have a joint in the middle of their arms, shoulder sockets that faced outward, not forward, a rotating spinal-and-hip column for maneuverability and throwing objects, and long legs for running great distances and thumbs that oppose ("face") the  finger pads of all of the fingers (to allow one-handed manipulation of objects as well as more secure grasping which required less energy than other forms of grasping). All of these attributes were not possessed by any other form of ape or monkey. And these qualties were all needed for throwing things directly or-- like the grasping and drawing of an arrow and bowstring--"throwing" them indirectly.

 

And as magician or sorcerer and maker of talismans he is associated with incantations: oogun ashe (medicines),  ogo  (curses)  and  protections,  camouflage,  odorlessness  or  scentlessness (by using anise/ fennel,  or  even garlic,   for example,  to  achieve  this). Invisibility,  and  "shape shifting,'  i.e., going back and  forth  into animal forms  as needed, and  by  the use of invisibility  through camou- flage are in his arsenal.  (By contrast, the orisha Oya--a female warrior of  the  wind--camouflages herself through invisibility)Oshoosi and the orisha Oya of the wind and respiration (called emi) or 'soul breath' are easily allied because both have warrior temperments. And because the hunter's world--like a sailor's-- would collapse without  mastery  of  the  winds.  

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When Oshoosi,  the orisha,  comes to possess a devotee, i.e., an Oshoosi  priest (a sorcerer),  the orisha Oshoosi sometimes signifies his presence by  making  dog-like barking sounds; as he is as- sociated with dogs. He is especially sensitive to the songs and praise chants of ode warriors like Ogun, and of Yemoja and Obatala. And, finally, this generally well-balanced orisha is quite favor- ed(!),  like  Oya,  by our "Holy Mothers."  (It  seems to  me that  the  well-known exiled revolutionary Assata Shakur in Cuba was depicted in a way suggestive  that she is a child of, or channelor of,  the ashe  of the Oshoosi-Oya combination in the film "Eyes of the Rainbow, 1997, by the seminal Cuban film-maker, Gloria Rolando. And, similarly, but in regard to well-known liberation theologists, Bis- hop Desmond Tutu of South Africa, the Dalai Lama of Tibet, or father Bertrand Aristide of Haiti seem to me to share, as "liberation theologists," the attributes of  these two orishas as well).

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Regarding Oshoosi, polarities are politesse and an erudite and civil temperament, on the one hand, and invincible combativeness, on the other; a dedication to the founding and sustenance of civil- ization, on the one hand, and a serious tendency--nevertheless--to isolate in the forest (or in exile), on the other. Being respectful of women and reproduction,  he is a protector of children and, like his brother Ogun, is a skilled negotiator.  Additionally, Oshoosi is reputed not to sire many children.

While there are stories of his liason with Oshun, his wife is also said to be the orisha Uja but, in other accounts, he was married to Oshun Iponda / Oponda.

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"Oshoosi, without working, wears a gown, apron (bante) and cap of fine beadery" (he is royal and wealthy). And he is an ajagun; a dog fighter!'  As well, he is also the owner of the paths near he riverbank). Oshoosi is the (outside the palace gate) guard or Ogunbe, and crier, for the palace of the Ooni but he never comes inside. Oshoosi is the brother of Orisha Oke (the mountain that Obat- ala first stepped on to when coming to Earth).  He is a sniper (ata matashe)  and captures at a dis- tance with an arrow or snare pit. And,"Oshoosi comes in to take for himself,  the head and crown of a king" (Ya ku ra mbo f'eri oba").  Or,"The Oshoosi child uses the head of a ruler" (Omo Oshoosi  f'eri oba"). See Mason, John, "Orin Orisha," pp. 124 and 134, respectively).

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Oshoosi's Ashe  and Beneficence Is Eternal That Transformed Him  Into a "Living Stone";  The

Permanent Protector of the Masses! 

 

Oshoosi is the most sensitive of orishas to issues of injustice. And one should not ask Oshoosi for justice when what is really needed and ought, in many cases, to be the thing most sought, is mer-cy (because justice can be harsh and irreversible). Unless your hands are clean, play it safe and first confess one's ethical shortcomings to Oshoosi, and only then ask for mercy, justice and a strategy!

Jurisprudence belongs to Obatala, but one's petition to "baba" must come through Oshoosi.

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In Nigeria, while Oshoosi is mostly associated with practitioners in Ogun state,  Oshun state as well as in Benin (Dahomey). But he is well known in Ile Ife as well. He originated, according to John Mason (Orin Orisha, p. 99), in Ikija Ijebu-Ode. There, the Ooni of Orisha religion,  Adeyeye Ogun- wusi Ojaja II, in 2018,  based in Ile Ife, led a venerable celebration of Oshoosi (See  Endnote #2 https: //m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=1254384184655657&id=962346807 192731&_rdr).

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This is the essence. The precursors of Yoruba (proto-Nok, Nupe, Ife, Owo, Igbo civilizations, etc.) go back about 9,000 years in that area as well as having absorbed later waves of culture from the east, i.e.,  from the areas round the confluence of the Bennue/Niger rivers, around Lake Chad and, bef- ore that, from the lower Sudan (See Endnote #1).

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Oshoosi, like Osi ris in KMT, was considered from that early date as the originator of religion and religious congregations as well as humanitarianism, social beneficence, social security, philathropy, and moral enforcement.  As the most skilled "hunter" he was, allegorially,  the provider and prot- ector par excellence. Thus, for this reason, Oshoosi is beloved by all as a Savior: the protector of the downtrodden and the immiserated classes.

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"Kato-ka-ki-ki-ki-ka-fenu-e-sole" was the name of Oshoosi's slave. It is he that brought forth the ashe of Oshoosi on Earth by painting Oshoosi's house white, in honor or Orisha'nla (Obatala), for

singing, dancing, and praising Olodumare.It is from this name that we get the word "Ketu"(the cap- ital of Dahomey), the "Ketu (Oxossi) Nation" of Brasil, and even the word "Catholic" derived, via the Grecian (or Coptic) and Latin languages, from this name. Even the Greek word "oikos" or "church" comes from the proto-Yoruba word for "Oshoosi" according to some, but I do not know this to be verified.

 

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Priests of Oshoosi in History

 

Most of the Africans directly initiated to Oshoosi did not make it into the New World as slaves to the Europeans. They were the first to fight and the last to die in resistance. In fact, in some of their villages in western Nigeria and, especially, in Benin (Dahomey), the hunter/warrior peoples protec- ted by Oshoosi and Ogun were never taken captive as slaves by anyone. In Ife lfe, a powerful spir- tual urban center among the Yorubas, the chief priest of Obatala seves as the chief priest for Osho- osi: the Aworo Ose.   And thus, Oshoosi is still celebrated in west Africa, contrary to some uninfor- med Cuban views.

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Because of Oshoosi's mandate to be the guardian of justice in civil society, and especially in view

of the fact that he serves as the spokesman--the gbesde gbeyo or--for Orisha'nla/ Obatala (no less), it is natual for Oshoosi to be concerned with ethical policing in any society where policing has em- erged.

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Oshoosi Is the Orisha of Justice: NOT the Orisha of the Police, Doctors, nor Zoo-Keepers.

 

First, let's deal with the stereotypes of Oshoosi and policing. This is the history:

                                                                                               *

"Oshowusi" or "Osowusi" is a 'night guardian of the people'; a policeman of sorts.  He, and other officials, protected the integrity or the "ashe" of the ilu  or "town". And, therefore, the police and other officials were called the "ashe'lu"  (in Cuba) while the words for "police," generally in Yoruba-land,  are awon olopa (the police group).  Thus, traditionally, hunters-removed-to-towns served as frontier guards, sentries, gate-keepers (ba'ile) and "policemen"  of the town because there were no professional police forces anywhere. And, specifically as "palace guards" (the palace of the Ooni of Ile Ife, Oshoosi priests sevre with Ogun priest as the "ologungbe").

                                                                                              *

In Cuba, Santeros often refer to police officials, to this day, as the "ache'lu. The police in Cuba can be pretty tough and people, therefore (being highly Yorubic in beliefs), tend to be very deferen- tial and  circumspect  when  dealing  with the orisha  and ashe of Oshoosi because  he  is  the one who, among many other things, is the "owner of police and jails." And he is also the one who can direct spiritual, social and legal means  to best  control them ethically --lest  they  become an op- pressive gang.  And for good cause,  because in many  different  types of countries (our own includ- ed), they often do!  By contrast, because of respect for "Ochosi," when compared to the western capitalist countries, there is very little "street crime" in Cuba! (Of interest probably only to pract- itioners of Yoruba religion, technically there is an eshu "road" called "Ashe'lu," but this is a differ- ent usage of the phrase as far as I, the author, know).

                                                                                                                        *

Interestingly enough, when I was  there in Cuba I s aw no police with guns  unless they  were escor- ting  trucks that delivered currency. Also, I  traveled  from  one  end  of  Cuba  to  the  other and, in terms  of  police  visibility, on  the streets, none of them were blancos  (in regard to"race"). And--since  most of  them  do  not  carry guns--I noticed that the few who did seemed to be dispropor- tionately Afro-Cuban.                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                   *

Oshoosi is also associated with all of the "ache'ilu" that control entry and exit from caged environ-

ments. For example, doctors are the gate-keepers for hospitals--a strange and forbidding place, like jails, to traditional Africans--that housed ill people by caging them in, or zoo-keepers who cage animals in zoos, or gamewardens that protect animals from extinction by fencing them into pres- erves and tracking down poachers.

                                                                                                                        *

Sometimes criminally-minded Cubans or Brasilians here, or in their countries of origin, will seek the power and protection of Oshoosi to evade the police for the anti-social crimes that they have com-mitted (or intend to). This is an egregious mistake and goes only to show that even the Gods are defenseless against stupidity! This is because Oshoosi ('Ochosi') is the guardian of justice not the guardian of criminality, rogues or gang-minded cops.  

                                                                                              *

Handcuffs are very popular symbol of Oshoosi. Indeed, handcuffs are applied to people who have been hunted and captured by the police, but they were originally used to chain the captive to the ache'ilu--i.e., to the arresting official.  In the religion, the handcuffs given to the neophyte priests of Oshoosi to place on his altar also tie  the priests of Oshoosi to this orisha of justice  and  to  social ethics!  His work, like  the  roles  and symbolism  of  all  of the  orishas  is  to bind you--at  least  their priests--to righteousness (though not perfection) in life.

                                                                                              *                   

The First  "Police" Africans-in-America Had to Deal With Were White Slave Patrollers: Since 1704 !


The lack of Oshoosi policing ethics is wholly evident in the class-based societies of the West; espec-

ially. For example,  until  the the white men's slave patrols began in the American  colonies  in  the early 18th century, there were no "police" in the western hemispshere.  Indeed, the colonialists in what was to become then, and afterward, much open debate in the Continental Congresses about slavery, conditoned their willingness to ratify entrance into the new union--i.e., into the Republic of the United States of America--upon the adoption of  the Second Amendment guaranteeing them their "right" to maintain "well-armed militias"--i.e. "well-armed" slave patroller gangs.  

                                                                                                                        *

These were the forerunners, 100 years earlier, of the Knights of the Klu Klux Klan and into which every able-bodied white man (including a young colonel George Washington) was required to ser- ve--begining in the Carolinas in 1704--starting at the age of sixteen in the southern colonies and states!  Later on the "Bobbies," became the first "professional police" and were formed in the UK around 1816 (they were unarmed), and in Boston in 1838.  Prior to these develpments, from time in memorial, and continuing today, criminal investigations and armed enforcement  were carried out by court-connected "constables" (i.e., a detective and judge combination) or by marshals, sheriffs or inquisitors.

                                                                                              *

Thus the phenomenon of 'policing' in society (meaning, simply, to keep things organized and civil)

is within the province of the orisha OshoosiHowever, to the extent that a priest of Oshoosi has an opinion about them at all (an opinion based on the ashe of Oshoosi) it would most likely be that he is neither a respector nor a disrespector of them per se. There are certain indispensible roles in ev-very complex society and "the police" is one of them. What matters first is: Whose "order" (i.e., soc- ial and class rule and interest) are the  police  serving  to edify  in  any given place? And second, do they treat the  citizery  equally,  humanely  and with  dispassion   (i.e. act like professional civil ser- vants) on the  one hand, or do they function as a self-perpetuating gang of thugs who knowingly, with impugnity, and with abandon, oppress segments of the populace (usually the most defense- less ones) or countenance it in their peers, on the other?

                                                                                               *

Please be referred to the author's policy brief on police reforms entitled "Justice Reforms Measures"  in the navigation bar of this web site for some proposals on the ethics of policing that ought to obtain in the contemporary United States.

                                                                                                                          *                               

                                                                                               *  

ORIKI (PRAISE TITLES) OF OSHOOSI

                                                                                                                           *

Oshoosi is sometimes referred to as the Oba L'oke (king of the mountain) where he protects the domain of  Obatala).

                                                                                                                           *

Oshoosi oluo igba (Oshoosi the chief priest of the forests).

 

Oshoosi 're 're-ooo  (Oshoosi is great in good fortune)

 

Odede (owner of the ownside and open frontier places)

                                                                                                *

Ode mata (Hunter, do not shoot me).

                                                                                                                                                 *                                               

Ode mata (Hunter who never misses).     

 

Osho wu si (the famous one)       

 

Ode de  (The hunter arrives).  

 

Oshoosi Odede (Oshoosi arrives standing tall).

 

Oshoosi ode mata  (Oshoosi do not shoot).  

 

Oshoosi Ode mata sele   (Oshoosi,the shooting hunter does not miss).

 

Ode ata matase Onibebe  (The owner of the riverbank where he hunts and associates with Oshun and Erinle).

 

Osholokere (The forest magician or wizard)

 

Oluwo igbo (The king of the forest) Olog'arare  (Master of Himself)

 

Oshoosi Alaketu (Oshoosi,the king of Ketu (Benin) Africa, and king of the Ketu "nation" in Brasil)

 

"Enibumbu, Olodo-Odo, Olomi-omi lba se..." "I praise all you pools (or "roads," "types," or "camin- os" or "ona") of Oshoosi and all of your rivers! All you waters, I salute!" (see section on Abatan, bel- ow).

 

Ode olorore (Hunter of abundance).

                                                                                                                        *

Aguerre is one of the types.

                                                                                                                         *

There are many more; please see the "Simple Oshoosi Prayer" section, below.                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                           *                                                   


The Types--"Roads," "Ona," "Caminos," or "Pools"--of Oshoosi 

 

Oshoosi and Erinle's (lnle's) "roads" in Brasil are called "ibu" or ponds and are the equivalent to the ona or the "caminos" (roads) of other orishas because there are no "roads" per se in the bush. In total, in some places, they are said to be 21 in number; including male and female types (Oshoosi okunrin and Oshoosi obinrin, respectively). Some of the more note­worthy ones are: lbujuto and lnle (or Erinle). But again, in Cuba, there are two main "caminos," roads, or "pools" of "Ochosi."

                                                                                               *

The entire list is to be found in cubanyoruba.blogspot.com/2007/04/oshosi.html . They are: Ochosi (of the) Highway,  Oshosi Kayoshosi,  Oshosi Ale,  Oshosi Marunde,  Oshosi Iualamo,  Oshosi Otin, Oshosi Onile,  Oshosi Abedi,  Oshosi Bi,  Oshosi Gurumujo,  Oshosi Odde,  Oshosi Odde kills, Ochosi Ode Ode,  Oshosi Buru,  Oshosi Beluja,  Oshosi Bomi,  Oshosi Kadina, Oshosi Bilade,  Soft Ochosi, Oshosi Tunde, Oshosi Omiale,  Oshosi Deyi,  Oshosi Of,  Oshosi Tafao,  Oshosi Elefaburu.

                                                                                                                        *

Characteristics,  Traits, and Associated Information About Oshoosi's      Allied Orishas: ErInle (Inle), Osayin and Osun

                                                                                                                                   *

 

[IMPORTANT NOTE ON THE  INFORMATION ON ORISHAS CONTAINED IN THIS SECTION].

                                                                                                                    *

All of the information on the nature of the orishas contained in this section, and the way their char- acteristics are enumerated, is public domain information en toto deriving from folkloric legends and stories repeated time and again by priests, diviners  and common-folk alike on three contin- ents; going back hundreds of years. No writer "owns" this world cultural herit age corpus of stories and myths about the orishas nor their descriptions (i.e.,  no one"owns" Ifa, its legends, mythic hero's and deity's characteristics).  

                                                                                                                         *

In addition to being common sense, this principle regarding the Yoruba/Ifa/Santeria religion has been recognized by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Social & Cultural Organization) in its protection of the literary and oral  literature of Ifa as a world cultural heritage corpus since 1998, thanks to the efforts of Dr. Wande Abimbola, the awise of Ifa, of Ile Ife, Nigeria, precisely in order to prevent any individual writer from claiming personal ownership or "credit" of the description of African deities found in the copious oral literature of Africa, Cuba, Brasil and (now) the United States and Europe. "Ifa" is the broad name for orisha religion which includes all of the deities and their natures descrbed herein.  Dr. Abimbola is the 5th ranking babalawo in the World, and the official world spokesman for the religion of Ifa as it is based in Ile Ife, Nigeria; Ifa's "awishe."                                                                                                                                       *

My knowledge of these orishas and their traits came, first and foremost, from y padrino and abuelo

in this religion,  Anya bi Osun (ibae!) and Ode Ilu (ibae!) who initiated me into the "mysteries" of these orishas--especially (Er)Inle and Abatan--in 1989 as a required part of my initiation to "Ochosi" in that year.  My next source of information on these minor orishas, e.g., (Er)Inle and Abatan, "al- lied" to Oshoosi ("Ochosi"), was obtained in the 1990's, from literature published in the Candomble school of "Orixa"religion in Brasil which was given to me by my egbonbirin (older sister), Oya Dei, in Oakland, California, and from many other books and seminars as well.

                                                                                                               *

In the Millenium I came across additional descriptions of these orishas in various websites, as that way of sharing information had become popular. Notable among these sources was the work of Martin Tsang in his (now defunct) website titled inle.freeserve.co.uk.  His recitation of information--because neither he nor anyone else personally invented the descriptions of the orishas--on the orishas "Inle" and Abatan was quite useful to me. And, finally, for the edification of the discerning reader I have appended at least fifteen websites--many of them existing for years now--that also describe the traits and characteristics of the orishas"allied" to Oshoosi--especially (Er)Inle and Abatan--in exactly the same way as do I and, earlier,  as did Martin Tsang. Please see the End Note to this section for those sites. The only way to list the traits and characteristics of the various orishas is to list them; hence all writers' enumeration of these things is similar because the subject matter is quite limited and, for centuries, has had only minor variations from country to country.

                                                                                                                *

Aja (Dahomey) is a female road of Oshoosi; owner of the forest and its animals. 

                                                                                 *

Arquetipo  (Brasil) is associated with rapid, alert movements, harmonizes the community and the family, is generous, is hospitable and is loyal provider and protector of women and children.

 

Oreluere   (In Brasil, as is known in Nigeria, Oreluere is a progenitor and protector of Oduduwa and is a chief of the forest villages that resisted invasions (he is sort of a commander of the National Guard and "Special Forces"). The Coblocos of Brasil--half Indian and half African folk of the forests--are associated with this Oshoosi. And here in North America Oshoosi is associated with the 550 First Nation tribes (of Indians). 

                                                                                                                             * 

Logun-Ede: the story is told that near the town of Ede--nine miles from the capital of Oshun wor- ship, Oshogbo --there is a wizard's grove (which is what "Oshogbo" means).  The ruler of the area and, particularly, of the Oshun cult is called the "Ataoja" ("one who uses his hands to feed the fish"). The Ataoja originally wanted to build his capital too close to the Oshun river--endangering, among other things, her scared shrine areas.  Upon the first attempt someone chopped down a tree that fell into the Oshun river; whereupon she cried out "Osho igbo" ("you've destroyed my indigo pots"). Hence "Oshogbo" from this eytmological source as well. This first ataoja was a hun- ter named "Olotumene (sp?) Laroye"; one, as a hunter, who was probably possessed with the ashe of Oshoosi.   

                                                                                                                          *

It is said that she, Oshun, appealed to Logun-Ede, her and (Er)inle's son (and a closely related av- atar of Oshoosi as well as connected to Oshun's eshu named "Laroye") to ask for his help in obtain- ing deference for her wishes. The Atoja agreed to move  the  town  farther  away and to keep her sacred  grove well-respected. In  exchange, Oshun  promised  eternal  protection  for  the town. In time, the Muslim Fulanis invaded in a jihad  against Yoruba­land, but they were stopped at the gates of Oshogbo, and turned back.  A similar thing hap­pened at the frontier of the Oyo state where the children of Shango also turned back northern invaders. Logun-Ede  is often referred to as a fierce male variant (or son ) of  Oshun and  is a  protector of  the wealth  of both  of his parentsAnd the eshu  (random force)  "Laroye" is,  as mentioned, still  connected  to Oshun  and Oshoosi by being rooted  in  this legend.  Logunede's  colors  are  dark  green  pants,  gold colored shirt, and yellow "skirt." (Many male and female  orishas  wear "skirts" of  cloth or mariwo (grass)--on  top of  their regular pants; some times symbolizing sweeping brooms).

  

Otin is a female riverine  type of  orisha Oshoosi revered in Onisa, Nigeria and is referred to (also) as the wife of Erinle in Cuba and southern Brasil,though considered male in the northern Candom- ble Brasilian sys­tems. Where  considered "male,"  Otin  is a  part of the ebu or egbe (guild society, lodge, order or cabildo) of Ogun's hunters.  As "Yemoja's anchor" this orisha links Erinle to Olokun. And remember that Erinle  is also considered  an alter ego  of  Oshoosi. They all speak or, in Inle's case is spoken for (because Yemoja actually speaks for him) in the odu of lrosun. Otin  appeared to the  leader  of  the  people  of  lnisha  and  prescribed for  them  the  place to establish  the town of lnisha.

 

Otin, having an Oshoosi-like quality of closeness to Obatala, has a parallel existence in Ketu or Ben- in (Dahomey). There this orisha is call Age and has a close relationship and is a protector of Lisa (their version of Obatala).   Otin accepts offering best at the juncture of the river and the ocean, i.e., and in the omodus (the 'junior' odus) of Oche-edi or Odi-che. She signifies a close bond bet- ween Yemoja and Oshun.

                                                                                                  *

Erinle  /  Inle

 

Erinle, lnle, Eyinle, Enle (in all locations) is associated with riverine zone medicinal magic ( oogun) and was known first to the Yoruba before Osayin (who is also associated with Oshoosi). He is a fish- erman, an animal breeder, and a ferocious hunter--i.e.,  an "Ajaja"--or "one who eats dogs!" (mean -ing that he is aggressive), is wealthy, and is refined in his dress and appliques: cowries, coral, and feathers. He has the memory, intelligence, power and ferocity of a forest elephant and his names means "the elephant in the earth" --the most aggressive kind. While the science and supernatural ashe of the leaves, roots, bark, sap, toxins, oogun (medicines) and so on of plants is now embodied in the divinity of Osayin, the original and current onisegun (doctor) of Yoruba religion remains to be Inle.

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So, Inle, Osayin, Abatan, Osun (not to be confused with Oshun) and Oshoosi, Ogun and Babaluaiye) make up the primal  spiritual and supernatural "health care system'" within Yoruba theology. Inle is the pen- ultimate doctor, though it is Ifa (in any of its divinitory forms) that writes the prescrip- tions. Erinle    is bi-gendered (not "bi-sexual"); spending half the year in male form and then, alter- nately, in fem- ale form in the other half. In female form, he is associated with Yemoja Mojelewu. Typically he is the consort of Oshun (and with her parented "Logun-Ede") and is also sometimes seen as "the son" of Yemoja Mojelewu with whom he is associated in the sea. Ideally, even his of- ferings go to the sea as well.  On land, he is associated, with orisha Oko of the farm and with Eshu Elegua,  Ogun,  and  Osayin  in  the  forest  or "igbo"  because of his close connection to medicine, charms, and amulet-making using things from the bush.

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Prior to being called "Inle" he was called "Igbo"; a forest physician.  Many latino  and  Brasilian  (or latino-influenced)  practitioners  who  are  homosexual  revere Inle as their protector  or  even their guardian orisha. But, this belief is a contemporary projection on their parts as there are no known cults of homosexuality in the history of Ife civilization. Usually, as is the case with the orisha Olok- un, bi-genderism in clothing is actually a celebration of itself (i.e., it celebrates the divinity of both genders as is, at least implicitly, heterosexuality as well because it appears--not unreasonably-- to be directly associated with reproduction; the most important thing in the culture.  In the histor- cal religious anthropology of traditional west and central Africa, homosexuality--whether of the male or female variety--was not sufficiently a subject of concern to warrant any religious doctrine and mythology about it in any direction--one way or the other; and certainly no orisha dedicated to its protection, edification nor condemnation.                                                  

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His symbol is an ibojuto I (which is an "osun" or communication fetish) in the form of a trident-­ like staff--(like Neptune's trident)--that rises from under the sea--that is, from his underwater castle where he--the "ode ko'baye"--once lived with and saw orisha "Olokun"(no other orisha has) until Yemoja summoned him from there and, thereupon, re-seated him at the bottom of the indigo col- ored Erinle river in Nigeria. Though he is mainly known as a riverine orisha and associated, there- fore, with  Oshun and  Oshoosi (owner of the riverbank), his  origins lie in  the very  depths  of the ocean; the richest place in the world, and the world's last repository of wasted things and ancestral bones, with Olokun. Hence they share prominence in the olodu called Irosun. And, since the min-

eral and biological resources of the ocean are essential to life and healing, and since (Er)Inle is the

physician orisha (even before Osayin and Ogun), it is natural and prescribed in the omodus called

Irosu-Odi and Odi-'rosun,  that one of his most potent locations for ebbo (healing rituals) is where the rivers flow into the oceans. (In the New World, of course, the mouth of the river and the ocean meet in the omodu Odi-Oshe and Oshe-Odi, but in Africa all rivers--except those belonging to spec- ified orisha--belong to Yemoja. I think it is best to look at Odi-Irosun as signifying where her rivers meet upon returning to "their deep source"; that is, the ocean.  His preferred fish, for offerings, come from the ocean.   

                                                                                                                          *                                                                                                                          

The snakes asso­ciated with Abatan--an associated orisha for lnle and Oshoosi--crawl up the outer arms of the ibojuto  and signify medicine and rejuvenation. It is the equivalent of Ofa Oshoosi, the iron bow and arrow that lives on the top of Ogun's iron pot. The ibojuto stands beside Yemoja or may sit atop the orisha Abatan. Also associated with Erinle's magical and medicinal powers are his staff which has carved or iron birds on it; his Opa Orere. And as a warrior orisha, Erinle also enjoys the use of the obe Ogun--the war knife of Ogun. This androgynous Orisha--male and female, river- ine and oceanic--is syncretized with San Rafael, the Catholic healer saint. And, in Cuba, he is juxta- posed with Saint Norbert and, in other places, with St. Thomas and St. Sebastian.

 

Some of the specific ibu of Enrile are Ojutu, Alamo ("Ibu-Alama"-a separate road of Oxossi in Bras- il), Owaala, lyamokin, Aanu, and Abatan. Erinle's seven sacred stones (otans) are kept in the earth- en vessel called Awo Ota Enrinle. Erinle is silent; his tongue having been cut out by Yemoja in a fit of erotic anger and jealousy toward Oshun (her daughter or sister, in some itan stories) because of Erinle's affection for her. And, thus, since then she, Yemoja, speaks for him in divination. (see bel- ow).

                                                                                             *

lbualama and Enrinle  in Ketu (Benin/Dahomey) are the two main roads of Oshoosi.

 

This Ibualama, Logun-ede, is also depicted as "the son" of Oshun and Enrinle in some stories.  He inhabits the riverbank and, like his father, is decribed as unbelievably fierce and effective as a hun- ter: "swift as a hawk; he who hunts like a cat." Logun-ede is also called "Laro" (and his "Eshu" is referred to as "Elegua Laroye"--the lawyer-spokesman of the Eshu pantheon; closely associated with Oshun and Oshoosi. As an eshu, he is gleeful and quick to take sacrificial offerings and is contentious.   He is especially associated with the llesa (lyesa) people of Nigeria and is called the "Prince of llesa" (Ijesa in Cuba). 

                                                                                                                                                                                              *

Abatan (a specific ibu or "pool" of Erinle)

 

Along with Erinle (lnle), Abatan is associated with Oshoosi. She is considered a wife to the orisha Erinle and a nurse who helps him prepare his medicine (oogun ashe). She, as an orisha, can be seat- ed on top of Erinle; like the orisha Dada that can seated atop Shango.  Abatan is considered an "av- atar" or another form of Erinle in Africa, but is considered "the wife" of Erinle In Cuba. (The term "wife" is used  loosely  in Yoruba religious liturgy; often meaning 'loyal com­panion' and is applied to men and women alike). For example, sometimes  Oshoosi  has  been  referred  to  as  "the wife" of Ogun. And new  initiates--male and female--in orisha religion are called "(i)yawos"  or "wives" of an orisha; from aya or "wife").   Abatan is the "nurse" of (Er)Inle; both of whom are aides to Oshoosi.

                                                                                                          *

Her role in  relation  to Oshoosi/Erinle is  connected  to her  natural  representations  on  earth: the pond, marsh or swamp. Her eleke (a ritual beaded neckless) contains alternating patterns of 7 and 14 beads in the colors of yellow,  green,  gold  and coral.   Offerings to her are made at a marsh. In Nigeria, Abatan  is an ibu of Erinle.  She provides Oshoosi  and Erinle with  nutrients and  attracts game that can  be  ambushed  at  "the pond."  Abatan  is  received  whenever  Enrile is received, and although Oshoosi  can  be given  singularly  as "orisha adimu'' (i.e., as  a  specific  catalyst  ritual  for  a  major problem), whenever  Oshoosi  is  crowned on someone's head, Erinle and  Abatan  should also be given to the initiate. In fact, the orisha "Oggue"--an avatar of Oshoosi--and the true squire

of Obatala should be given as well, if possible.

                                                                                                                            *

Nursing a person goes better with the ashe of Abatan to heal the wounds of iron (e.g, in surgery).

I often put spirulina in her vessel as an ashe.

                                                                                                                          *

Abola and Aboqui are described as twins that always accompany Oshoosi (see "Agolaroye. com/ ochosi.php).  They are 'guardian angels' of hunters.


Sample Stories (Itan*) of Orishas Associated With Oshoosi

 * (Most Lucumi and some Nigerians use the word "patakin" or "apatakin" to mean a "story."  But, in Yoruba the word patakin means "important."  It became used in Afro-Cuba as a synonym for "story"  because the elders would teach the youthful the legendary stories of the odus  by first saying 'Listen! This is important.' This story is (a)patakin ! ; it is im- portant!  The actual word for "story" is itan; and is related to one word for 'book').
 

With Oshun  (Greeting is "Ore yeye ooo! "   Response is "Ore yeye Oshun")

 

The relationship between Oshoosi and Oshun is legendary. Both likely have ancient linguistic con- nections to the Egyptian or Nilotic deity "Shu." But more importantly, Oshun is known to be Osho- osi's lover. And, like Ogun, she found him (and his hunter familiars) in the forest near her river and enticed him to respect her area of--to be called Oshogbo--and to aid her in providing security, heal- ing plants, beauty, and commerce--basically, to aid her in creating a civil society there. (The hun- ters, who had been on a quest for good water, chopped down some of her trees in order to make a grove--an osho-igbo (hence, "Oshogbo"--which means a 'gathering or groove of wood(s),' Unfort- unately, some of the trees broke her dark blue indigo pots, such that she decreed as an ebbo etutu (an offering of atonement) that they would agree to build a settlement respectfully far enough away from her river so that there would be no future mishaps).

               

                                                                                                        * 

In this case, she also became the iyaloja --the chief woman of the marketplace. (Some people use the term iyalode"-chief-woman-in-charge)) where he, Oshoosi, specifi­cally brought game and honey to her market   to  be  sold. She first obtained honey (oyin) from him  and, in exchange for this favorite nutrient, charm and antibiotic of Oshun's, she  promised him that  she  would send a swarm of bees to sting out the eyes of anyone who threatened him. When Oshun speaks and prescribes ebbo, in the absence of Orunmila, if the animal offering goes to Os- hoosi, it must only be sacrificed outdoors and never in front of her. Many of Oshoosi children often forego honey out of respect for Oshun.

                                                                                                                                        *

It should also be noted that both Oshoosi and Oshun are wizards. "Osho," as  as as mentioned above, also means "wizard." or sorcerer and, is thus connected to its literal meaning of "wood(s)"--

osus(i.e., a grove of trees). And "osi" means "left." Hence, Oshoosi's name refer to as the "left-handed wizard of the woods." Akin Osho" that means "power wizard" or "great one." And Oshun hailed, thereafter, from Oshogbo (again,osho--igbo--'the woods of wizardry'), And she also has an oriki  or salutation name: Ori sun,  the isun , or the ibi' patakin.  These terms mean "the source" or "important narrow or contracted" source of ones "Head." Oshoosi and Oshun are very dedicated to each other. Additionally, Oshun is a part of Awon Iya Wa;  the Society of our Holy Mothers ("wit- ches"). Indeed, she is the head of this grouping of "iyami" or "aje" adepts. They live and meet in the woods and on the branches of wood, and they have a partiality to the Hunters--especially to Osho- osi.  This is not surprising since it was Oshun who first convened a convention of our Holy Mothers

in order to insure women's liberation and equality! And it was she that became the chief of their society's representatives on Earth.  Do bale Oshoosi, do'bale Oshun (salute these two orisha).                                                                                                                     *

With Obatala (Greeting is Eeepa orisha ooo!   Response is "Orisha Eeepa")

 

Oshoosi is regarded as a "child of Obatala." (His "father" in Africa is Odede (Oranmiyan), He is also is the guardian of the gate to Obatala's castle (an Ologungbe and, with Ogun, an Adele). He speaks for Obatala as his Akede Feyo (which means ‘spokesman  who speaks with fidelity’) and when he speaks for “Baba,” his recitations are Abede, that is, clean-cut and straight to the point (Agbaroso fun-ni.  That is, he speaks for Obatala with the same authority as do the Ilari priest for the oba Shango!

                                                                                                           *

 When you hear Obatala, you hear him. Oshoosi is, effectively, orisha funfun; an orisha of "white cloth" (asho 'fun 'fun) ; meaning a "cool-headed" orisha. Accordingly, he favors shea butter (ori) more so than palm oil (ope, epo), like Obatala when being fed or cleaned--especially if these are in the context of an ita ceremony (a very special divination reading). For example, like one's "life des-tiny reading"  that occurs near one's natal birth (in Africa) or upon one's deep initiation into an orisha cult or society (in the western hemisphere).  

                                                                                                    *                                                                                                  

With OsayinEshuAkoro (Ogun) and lgbo (Erinle)

                                                                                                                                *

These orishas are related to Oshoosi in the following way. All three of these orishas were the sons of Yemoja Okute (Yemoja Ogunte/Okuti)--the "mother of the fishes" of  (probably) the Ogun river. Eshu, being mischievous, was made by Yemoja to live outside the house. Akoro worked on farms. But lgbo, who had 'locks' or very curly hair, was born to be a hunter. lfa warned Yemoja that lgbo was destined to leave forever if he went out to hunt in the forest. lgbo went into the forest to hunt despite Yemoja's instructions to him to the contrary.

             

While there he met Osayin (an herbalist from Mali) who drugged him and when he awoke, the hunt had begun He did not remember the world of men as he had been transformed into Erinle (Ode) while he had been asleep. When the hunt was over the other hunters could not fetch him. When discovered to be missing by Yemoja, Akoro set out to find him by taking all kinds of metal tools into the bush to clear paths and  to search. By  this time Enrinle was  dressed  as  if  in  a  hunting  party, but Akoro took him home on  his shoulders.  Upon returning, Yemoja  rejected  him for his disob- edience. But both Osayin and Akoro decided that could not live with their brotherly hunter and returned to the forest with. After a quarrel about him, they decided to hunt together forever with Akoro becoming Ogun, Eshu becoming Elegua, lgbo becoming Erinle, and Osayin remaining the god of herbalism and medicine. In utter despair at having lost all three of her sons Yemoja became a river--the Ogun river. (There are versions of this myth that say that Erinle precedes Osayin--an "imported" deity from Mali--as the original herbalist--doctor among the Yorubas).

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With Osayin and Osun (Not to be confused with Oshun).

                                                                                                 *

As mentioned, Osayin is the orisha of ewe--plants: roots, fruits, leaves, sap,  bark, toxins, dyes, oils seeds, etc.,and the distillation of the ashe that is in them to affect healing, cleansings, charming, and protecting the body and the birthing of orisha.  All "priests" work--to a greater or lesser extent with the ashe of the plants--the ewe. Nothing can be done without the power of the orisha Osayin. 

It is the basis of the ritual "Holy Water" (omiero) that is used in all serious ceremonies. But Osayin is also the practice of self-defense; used in making talismans and doing "little jobs" (trabajitos) on

those who would do you harm as well as for cleansings (limpiezas, in Lucumi). 

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There is a well-known story (an itan-patakin) about Oshoosi and Osayin. It goes like this, in essen- ce:  Oshoosi was hunting on an unlucky day. He could not snare, trap, nor shoot prey successfully. While in despiar and getting tired he was chanced upon by the orisha Osayin; the purveyor of for- est medicinals and plants. He invited Oshoosi to his home for a meal and fed him handsomely.  Oshoosi began to feel sleepy and spent the night there. His mind became clouded and he contin- ued to stay until he learned a great deal from Osayin about the secrets of the plants (although

he already knew where they were located he did not know how to prepare the oogun--medicine from them until he was shown so). After a few days, Oshoosi's big brother Ogun came to look for him and rescued him from the home of Osayin. His knowledge of the forest began to slowly come back to him, but now he had the additional knowledge of how to use igede or ogede (incantations) prepare the  oogun (medicine) and use the supernatural power of the ewe (the plants).           

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Associated with Osayin is the entity, not an orisha, the "Osun"; 'the spirit of God' in this sense. Osun literally means "the source."  For example, one of the "nicknames" for the orisha Oshun  is "Ori Osun" or 'the source of the Head.' The word "osun" (or isun) should not be confused with the orisha "Oshun" though, as can immediately be seen, that is easy to do. Also, in the area of "the

source" as a concept comes the word "osun." For example, the osu igbo (a single tuft of hair left on a shaved head) and eriosun (a sacred camwood powder used in Ifa divination); the greatest source of insightfulness destined to go directly into thehead.  It is in the head, simply put, that Ori and Osun are intimately connected (where, again,  one's most important personal diety, one's "Ori"

simultaneously means one's Head, one's Intelligence and one's destiny.

                                                                                                                                   *

Osun comes in two versions: "The Osun" and, on the other hand, "an osun." In the sense of "The Osun," what is being referred to is a little metal statute with a small rooster on the top (in the case of aborishas and olorishas) or a quite sizeable metal staff with a larger rooster mounted on its top (for babalawos). In both cases, the statues are loaded with compacted ewe--power plant materials--that "charge" them with ashe power!  When the focus is on this kind of Osun--"The Osun"--its role is mainly to "channel" the ashe power of the ewe (the plants) into what spiritual project that is cur- rently being done. It is for regeneration and "course correction" away from very dangerous, near-term, outcomes.  

                                                                                                                   *

By contrast, the term "an osun" means something else that is similar, but still involves the small or large rooster-topped statues or even, alternatively, certain mounds of the important plants (not enclosed in any object), "artistic" designs--sometimes in white chalk or colorful--drawn on the floor (firma or veve) or on somebody's body--or even something as simple as a glass of water (e.g., for meditational water-gazing at one's ancestral altars). In a sense,  all of these "objects" can serve like broadcast "antennas" and "receiving antennas" between the supernatural messaging that may, at times, issue from guardians "in Heaven" or "the cosmos," on the one hand, and a practitioners "ori," on the other.  Sometimes severe warnings--as a last resort to avert even death--may be transmitted that way--through the antenna function of an "osun."

                                                                                                       *                                                         

But, far more often, an osun is ritually used to insure that a direct channel between the divinos- phere and a person's ori occurs as may be required in initiations rituals, animal sacrifices, and on other important occasions. Osuns are also used to facilitate contact direct ancestral spirits as a part of oju'run (ancestral altar) or boveda rituals. The possessors of a permanent statuette osun  goes to great lengths to treat them with the greatest of respect--e.g., never letting it fall over out of negligent handling or failing to keep it perched in the highest practical place inside one's resid- ence. Ritually dealing with them is about as close as you--a human--are ever going to get to deal with the Heavenly (for better or worse) other than when one experiences a true orisha possession.  (Ini). Osun and Osayin are deities who allow Oroina (oroo is to turn and ina--like fire- connotes continuous rotation). 

                                                                                                               * 

With Yemoja, Yemonya,  or Yemenya--("yeye omo eja" = "Yemoja" = "mother of the fish child- ren"). Greeting is "Omi-ooo"    Response is "Omi o, Yemoja" meaning (Water! but as 'O-mio' it could mean 'Oh my' or 'Oh no' as in 'spectacular').                    

                                                                       *

Yemoja is the mother of Oshoosi in the New World (while Yemu or "Yembo" is in Africa) and very fond of him.In some apatakis (patakis are stories) she rivaled Oshun for the love of Erinle and ul- timately cut his tongue out in anger; the result of which, as mentioned, was that she speaks for Erinle to this day.

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This is the most famous Oshoosi story form. Basically it holds that Oshoosi owned a parrot that was noteworthy for knowing his secret incantations that made his medicine charms work-in tipping his arrows with this concoction made of herbs. One day he went out for a hunt and stayed a very long time indeed in the forest. In the meantime, someone came to his home and devoured his par- rot.

                                                                                               *

When he returned home, he pointed his arrow into the sky and uttered a curse that directed the arrow to pierce the heart of whomever had ended the life of his parrot Odide. He did not know that the culprit was his mother Yemoja. She died of the wound. From that time Oshoosi first lear- ned to be careful with his words; especially his curses. And he learned that justice, to the extent that it is blind, can be merciless as well. So justice should be dispensed with wide-open eyes.

 

There are numerous variations of this story. The most common have it that Oshoosi had game birds hanging or curing around his hut when he took off for a long hunt. While he was gone, his mother visited his abode and found it to be messy. She cleaned it up and also cooked the birds without him knowing it. When he returned he was angered at not knowing who had taken liberties with his birds and proclaimed the curse, shot the arrow, and produced the same result.

                                                                                                   * 

With Shango (Greeting is Kabiesie!--"Your Majesty"   Response is Kawo Kabiesie Shango!)

 

Oshoosi is not necessarily a good businessman.   The "Omo Obara" (probably Shango) was tending a farm one day. On that day Ode (Oshoosi) went to the forest to hunt, but had no luck finding game. He asked the King of the Forest for help. The king, the Oluwo Ogbo, gave him six pumpkin seeds and disappeared back into the forest. Ode thought that these seeds were magical but even- tually noticed that they remained unchanged. He gave them to Omo Obara who promptly planted them, and became rich from selling them in the market place. Ode was never again able to find the Oluwo lgbo when he searched for a replenishment of his gift. Magic is useful,but not always practi- cal. The Muslims have a saying: "Pray to Allah five times a day (but tie your camel !)" that expresses

the sentiment expressed by the Buddhists: "Before Enlightment, chop wood and carry water. After

Enlightment, chop wood and carry water."     

                                                                                                                                   *

A second story goes like this. Shango was a respected ruler, But he had two generals that were quite belligerant. One was a sorcerer named Gboka who was an expert at hexing his enemies. The other was an Oshoosi-like warlord name Timi. The populace complained to Shango that the wars that these generals were waging was too costly in blood and treasure. But Shango loved both of them (and also loved a fight) and only reluctantly sent Timi away so that he would be less of a problem. Gboka remained in Old Oyo. Unfortunately, Timi--whose arrows never missed an enemy--tried to supplant Shango in the new area to which he was sent.

                                                                                                                                   *

In response, Shango sent Gboka there to do battle with Timi and to bring him back to answer for his deeds. By using incantations, sorcery, and juju to make Timi's arrows miss everything he shot at and rendered him sedated. This is how Gbonka won. So, Shango, having ordered the return of Timi demanded that  Gbonka repeat the victory so that all of the people could see his magic work.  He ordered them to fight again. But while Timi was gone, Gbonka had visited the forest to get the aid of the Iyamis to fortify his sorcery powers. They finally repsonded to his incantations and the Queen of the Witches (Oshuronga) gave him an ebbo to do to fortify his charms. After her, the King of the Witches also throug his support in to aid Gbonka. 

                                                                                                                                     *

Thus when the second battle between Timi and Gbonka occurred in Oyo, the supporters of Timi gave Shango a very hard time because they did not want GBoka to kill Timi. Nevertheless, Gbonka killed him. After that, Shango cursed him mightily because he did not expect the full murder of Timi.  But, by the time of the fight, Gbonka had begun to mistrust Shango and then challenged him in return. Shango was so enraged by Gbonka's termidity, that he breathed spewed fire on him from his mouth, and took his double-headed axe and chopped some people up.

                                                                                                                                    *

After consulting with Oya, his trusted wife, he was so despondent that he went the woods and hung himself on an Ayan tree!  Oya, when she discovered his body decreed that he should be deified and worshipped forever saying "Oba Koso!" ("The king did not die!").

The moral of the story is: 'do not challenge the king!'                                                                                                                                                                                           *

                                                                                                                                                                                

With Ogun & Orunmila  

                                                                                                   *

Greeting for Ogun is "Ogun Ye"   

      Response is "Ogun mo ye ooo!   

                                                                                                       *

In  the odu Ogunda-rosun,  the story is that in order to hunt animals, Ogun thought that all he had to do was to cut, slash,and fell the whole forest. This, of course, stampeded all of the animals away (Isare-giri-giri).  Since this would never do, Oshoosi convinced him to only cut paths in the forest, since he he needed the tress and bush as ambush cover. This method of cooperation proved to be successful. Oshoosi also began to use iron weapons to make his hunting effective.                                                                                                                                                              *

                                                                                                                                            

This next story comes from the excellent Cuban website called Cubanyoruba.blogspot.com.   (I quote  it here under  the "fair use" doctrine of US copyright law as a brief quotation for educational purposes only). This is the story or itan ("patakin,"" apatakin"). It is not attributed to a particular omodu (a chapter of "holy scripture," as above, but also appears to be from Ogunda-rosun  as we                                                                                                                                       *

"Oshosi was the best of the hunters and their arrows never failed. Nevertheless, he couldn't get

their preys because the thickness of the forest prevented it. Desparate he went to see Orunmila,

and he advised Oshosi to do ebbo. Oshosi and Oggun were enemies because of Eshu, who gos- siped about each other, but Ogun had a similar problem. Although nobody was able to make paths in the thick forest quicker than him, he wasn't able to kill any piece as the animals  escaped  from  him. Ogun went to see Orunmila too and received instructions to do ebbo. He went to do the ebbo, so  both rivals went to the forest to fulfill his. Without realizing Oshosi dropped his ebbo on Oggun, who was laying in a trunk. They had a strong discussion, but Oshosi apologized and they seemed to talk and to count his problems to each other. While they spoke, in a distant spot step a deer. Quick like a ray, Oshosi get up and shot an arrow, that crossed the neck of the deer leaving it dead." You see, Oshosi sigh, "now I cannot take it."  Then Oggun took his machete and in no time he opened a path to the deer. Both of them very happy arrived to the animal and they shared it. From that moment they agreed upon whenever they'll be there one for the other and realized that when separated they were nobody, reason why they made a pact in the house of Orunmila. That is why Oshosi, the hunter, always walks with Oggun, the owner of irons." Ogun's tools made hunting more effective.  

                                                                                                                            *

When Oshoosi is fearful Ogun, can be counted upon to step in and "handle his light work"; that is, visit utter destruction on his enemies. "When Oshoosi is a coward, he calls upon Ogun" (in other words, he will cut or shoot).

                                                                                                                            *

Also, in  the odu (i.e., the omodu), Ogunda-rosun,  the story is that in order to hunt animals, Ogun thought that all he had to do was to cut, slash,and fell the whole forest. This, of course, stampeded all of the animals away (Isare-giri-giri).  Since this would never do, Oshoosi convinced him to only cut paths in the forest, since he he needed the tress and bush as ambush cover. This method of coop- eration proved to be successful. Oshoosi also began to use iron weapons to make his hunting 

                                                                                              *

Oshoosi with The Iyami (Our Holy Mothers)

                                                                                                                            *

In the omo'du Irosu-Oshe, a story exists where some of Oshoosi’s night birds flew away as he had the habit of letting them fly around outside of their cages at night. But one night, some of them diid not return. After that lesson, Oshoosi closed the cage gates permanently. The iyami are not orisha per se;  they are "neutral" spiritual entities.

                                                                           

Oshoosi and Odu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             *

Oshoosi speaks quite frequently:  1-6, 1-11,  2-1, 2-3,  2-4, 2-6,  2-16, 3-4, 3-16, 4-5, 4-10, 4-16, 5-2, 

6.6, 6.11,  7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 8.2,  8.11, 9.15, 10.11, 11.3, 11.7, 12.3, 12.7. (In the Lucumi dilogun order of Olodu and Omodu).                                                                                                                             *

                                                                                                                           *                      

Offerings To Oshoosi by the Numbers 1, 3, 7 and 21.

                                                                                                                            *

These can include virtually everything that any warrior orisha can eat:  the ashes of ram, dog, goats, as well as roosted cow-peas, baked yams (especially with seven pieces of coconut in them), tree sap, snails, cornbread (especially with coconut in it), pork, roosters, Guinea fowl, and ox. Of course, fruit adimus (offerings) are favored. He likes liquorish (and anise or fennel which flavors it) and ani- sette and, especially, creme de menthe.   Pheasant (!), hamsters, doves, pigeons, and peacocks are acceptable too. Ideally, give Oshoosi seven (7) units of whatever offering you make, though this

exact number is less necessary when it comes to animal sacrifices.  The number 3 can also be used

because it is associated with Ogun (and Oshoosi's close relationship to that orisha); though gifts of

"3" to anyone is often avoided among Yorubas out of deference to the destructive ashe associated

with Ogun and the odu Ogunda--the number of which is "3"--in the Cuban Santeria-Lucumi variant.

However, "3" is also a sacred number for Elegua (Eshu--Elegbara) along with "7" and "21" for him.

                                                                                                                            * 

Except for the doves and pigeons, do not forget to treat Elegba to a little of the offering, and note that Ogun and Oshoosi often eat together).  Oshoosi likes to accept obi abata (kola nuts) as a gift offering. Chewing an atare (Guinea pepper) and filling the mouth with anisette/rum and the spray- ing him with it is a favored "toast" to him. When feeding him it is best to do so outdoors, but--at least in the Brasilian traditions-- never put the heads of animals sacrificed to him in front of him (put the heads in the woods). And Oshoosi children do not eat any of the animals that is hunted by Oshoosi--especially deer. This taboo can and should be broken only to save the life of an omo (son

or child) of Oshoosi if he or she is deathly ill.  A fairly simple meal for him is made in the following ways. In the West, Oshoosi's egbe (society) birthday celebration is October 21st, (in August in Nigeria) and he is revered during the whole month of October; syncretic for "Libran" justice and balance in character, perhaps. In Cuba, he is celebrated on June 8th.  Food offerings:

                                                                                               *

Offerings to Oshoosi

                                                                                                                         *

Simple Adimus (offerings)

                                                                                                                         *

Fruits (especially apples), pork 'n beans, various beans dishes, and yams (especially seven yams, 

with one slit cut in each wherein seven pieces of coconut are placed in the slits) and smeared with lard prior to baking them. A great glaze for them (as well as a direct offering in itself) is a "spray" or dash combination of rum and annisette or (creme d'mente). Game birds like quail and pheasant are also highly appreciated by this orisha.

 

Asoso  (prn: Ashosho)

 

The simple version: "Little Asoso" (Frejao, Frahino in Brasil). Black eyed peas and salt. Soak for two hours. Use a well-worn skillet and with a high fire throw them onto the skillet. Toast until brown or black. Pray to Oshoosi and put white syrup or maple syrup on them (do not use honey). Give them to Oshoosi indoors; no need to confirm with obi.

 

The more elaborate version "Big Asoso" Use four pounds of corn ears and cut off the kernels. Take all spoiled kernels out of the mix. Soak all day. Add salt and boil them until they are soft.

 

Drain the water off and make a corn pulp.  In the meantime make a clay plate painted with bows and seven arrows circularly painted pointed outward from the center.  Then open a coconut and take the brown inner skin off of the pieces. Cut the pieces into slivers and put them into the corn pulp.  After placing the corn pulp into the clay bowl or bowl,place the plate on the earth three times saying "lyan'le" 3x.  Then pour the white Karo syrup on the Asoso.

 

After three days lift the plate saying "Ofe !" Place the clay dish and Asoso under a tree in the woods. Confirm with obi (coconut pieces) to see if anything else is desired with the offering before going to the woods.

                                                                                                                      *

Ebbos (Sacrificial Offerings) to Oshoosi are profitably left at the door of, or on the grounds of, courthouses, jails and zoos or one's unjust enemies. Oshoosi can eat, as can all of the warriors, most of the animals fed to other orishas--especially red roosters.

                                                                                                 *

 

The Ritual Colors for Oshoosi


Colors include violet or blue and amber or gold. Teal and amber or gold also work well. Add coral, jet black, green,and brass. His elekes will contain similar colors (with also a dash of red and green along with the black beads). In some places green is used as a color for Oshoosi (but teal is better).

 

 

The Carga ("Cargo") of Oshoosi

 

This awo (secret) is omitted here. These are ritual ingredients to make up the ashes for Oshoosi. Various dried plants, dried birds heads or other dried animal parts, and soils are used in some com- bination. I can mention, however, some of his important ewe and herbs: anise /fennel, and (see 

 "Santeria: A Practical Guide to Afro-Caribbean Magic," by Luis M. Nunez, for the others like espin- illa, cercelera, jia blanca, chincha, Leadwort, esparto grass, fulminate, incense, tobacco, vine arbor,

 Jamaican rosewood, castor oil plant, basil. To these we might add the leaves of all fruit trees, and

the usual ewe for all of the warriors.


                                                                                                                         *

Crowning Oshoosi to An Initiate's Head. 

                                                                                              *

It is necessary to include the following orishas in the initiation (the kario'cha or the "crowning") of

an omo Oshoosi (a child of Oshoosi) or olo Oshoosi (possessor of Oshoosi): 

                                                                                                                         *

The Warriors: (the Ologuns or Los guereros) of Elegua, Ogun, Oshoosi, and Osun.

                                                                                                                         *

The Aides-de-Camp of Oshoosi: (Er)Inle and Abatan and Osayin (the orisha of herbs and herbalism)

and Oggue.

                                                                                                                         *

The Necessary Orishas:  Oshoosi, Oggun, Obatala, Oke, Yemoja, Shango, Oshun, and Oya.

Like all of the Ode warriors (guerreros in Cuba) like Elegua, Ogun, and Osun, Oshoosi's kids must

be crowned outside in a forest or forest-like shrine; an igbodu. Warriors in Yoruba are also called "ologun" and "ajagun."

                                                                                                                         *

 

Implements and Adornments of Oshoosi

                                                                                                                         *
Bante (leopard-skin apron), tools, charms, deer horns, deer heads, turtle shells, animal pelts (e.g., leopard and monkey skins),  bows and arrows, rifles, ram horns, dried game birds, fish-hooks, an- imal pelts, handcuffs, silver spears (weilded by his avatar Oggue--the squire of Obatala) and scales adorn his shrine or altar areas; .  One calls to Oshoosi by using a cow-bell.  Oshoosi's bow and arrow sets (his flechas) live in his and Ogun's pots (or open vessels, caldrons, soperos, and half-gourd shells) and can be worn as jewelry replicas.

                                                                                                                          *

It is quite  good to use a simple bramble bush or tumble weed (alone!) as an altar--called an ojobu or ojo'run-- for Oshoosi. It signifies traps and snares.  A bramble bush-looking metal sculpture with many birds on it is also an icon of Oshoosi; signifying his close relationship with "our Holy Mothers."

                                                                                                                         *

A Statement About The Essence of Ochosi

                                                                                                                          *

I like this statement so much that I have taken the liberty to include it here at this moment. It comes from  The Yoruba Religious Concepts (Lucumi) website:

                                                                                               *

              https://sites.google.com/site/theyorubareligiousconcepts/eleggua/oggun/osoosi-oshosi-hunter-and-judge

                                                                                                                          *                                      

"Working in close association with Eshu and Oggún, the work that is accomplished by Oggún to clear the obstacles in our lives is Òsóòsi /Oshosi, inseparable brothers who as the spirit of the tracker has the ability to locate the shortest path to our spiritual goals. The essential goal of Òsóòsi /Oshosi is to guide us towards the task of building "iwa-pele" ( good character). This guid- ance takes form as a spiritual quest which is called "Iwá-kiri".

                                                                                                                           *

"According to IFA theology, spiritual evolution is in perfect harmony with the process of physical evolution that occurs in nature. Thus as a result Òsóòsi /Oshosi has a double role to play within his responsibility. He must guide us on our quest to find spirit- ual growth and protect the needs of nature .

                                                                                                                            *

"Òsóòsi /Oshosi must understand the inner dynamics of Nature as well as the human consciousness so that in harmony a balance is made in the physical world. He must be in direct contact with those spiritual forces who guide good character and those spiritual Forces who maintain fertility and abundance in nature.

                                                                                                                            *

"At the core of his power is the knowledge and mysteries of the plants. IFA teaches us that plants for the forest are used for various spiritual cleanings. It is here that the mysteries of the plants form a basis of which mankind can access the communic- ation with the Spirits of the forest. For this reason Òsóòsi /Oshosi, is known as the magician of the forest. It is through the use of herbal remedies , herbal charms and herbal baths that Òsóòsi /Oshosi can show us the vision of where we are headed, both individually and collectively. Because of this scared responsibility , he is known as the Guardian of the forest. The hunter hunts the Ashe of Ori're're (a potent Head) and Iwa Pele (Good and Gentle Character). This hunt--the hunt for these kinds of Ashe--is called the hunt or daily quest for Iwa Kiri .   

                                                                                                                           *

"Through the invocation of Òsóòsi /Oshosi that we come to realize that the elemental spirits who preserve the forces that sustain life on the planet. This consciousness takes form of a group of Spirits called "Irunmole". The word Irunmole means "Light from within the earth". Light is used in the context of consciousness or illumination . The consciousness that guides such forces of Nature, like the Ocean, is believed to be beyond the human comprehension." 

                                   

                                                                                                                           *

 Three Easy Prayers to Oshoosi  (traditional) 


Iba Oshoosi,olog arare                                             I salute Oshoosi master of himself

 

Agbani nijo to buru                                                    Wise one who gives blessings

 

Orisha ipapo odun                                                     Spirit of sweet togetherness

   

Koko ma panige                                                          Divination guides the hunter

 

Ode olorore                                                                  Hunter of abundance

 

Obaloge are ojo pata ma ro                                    The chief tracker overcomes fear

  (Olori olutọpa bori ẹru)                                             "         "          "                "               "

                    Ashe                                                                                So be it 

                                                                                                                        *

                                                                              "'KI 'KI" OSHOOSI

                                                                         PRAISE NICKNAMES

                                                                                        *

Olofa                                                                               Owner of Divine Archery

Oshowusi                                                                       Osho the famous one

*

Ija tii ja iru erin                                                              One that cuts the elephant's tail

*

Omo Oshooro                                                               Child of the Tradition of Wizardry

Akin nile, Akin loju ogun                                            At home, hero of the battle front

*

Bi Oso o ti e le ja                                                          If Osho is a coward (fearful)

*

O ti gbekele Ogun                                                       He depends on Ogun (iron)

*

Ogun onire oko Mojude                                            Ogun, the monarch of Ire (town)

*

Osho Olofa kan ata tu'gun                                       Osho, the owner of one arrow

                                                                                           that kills many at the battle front.  

*

Kato ki kiki-ka-fenu-e-sole   (Oshoosi's slave's name whom he decreed that he should never marry

nor have children before Oshoosi became "a living stone"). His house shall be a refuge for the

needy. His doctrine is the origin of humanitarianism through religious devotion--especially in reg-

gard to Christian charity. His slaves name gave rise to the Greek word "Katolikos" which became

"Catholic" doctrine of worship for the masses of the world. Indeed, the word "church" comes from

the Greek "Oikos" which springs from the word "Oshoosi."  Oshoosi is celebrated in January in Ile

Ife and is presided over by the Ooni (Oonirisha).   O ti se se!! (It is possible!)

_____________________________                                                                                                                                               *

  *Oriki for Oshoosi from Yoruba Kalendar 2009/2011 by chief priest Yemi Elebuibon, Akoda of Osogbo (Nigeria).

                                                                                              *

                                                                                         END NOTES                                                                   

ENDNOTE #1   

See Orin Orisha by Olorisha John Mason; section on Oduduwa/Obatala for the 9,000 year old history of the proto-Yoruba and Yoruba civilization in west Africa.

                                                                                                                            *

ENDNOTE #2 The Ooni of Ife, His Imperial Majesty, Ooni Adeyeye Ogunwusi Ojaja II during the 2017 Odun Oshoosi festival proffered Yoruba traditional religion as a tool in solving the challenges of peace and love in Nigeria and Africa. The festival was attended by dignitaries from different countries and continents in the world especially America and the Caribbean countries. Oshoosi, is foremost the founder of all religious congregational worship worldwide (as well as all primal social institutions) and is a great benefactor of humanity. 

See https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/WhctKJTzzZLsrvjKSdpXwsBMWZtgTKgzlPXNkHwfGWzPzKKQlRQvZsGKTQPGZkrkcstWBXB

                                                                                                                       *

ENDNOTE # 3

These sites also spell out the characteristics, colors, offerings, issues and stories (patakis) of these orishas exactly as I have described them herein.


   Existing Websites That Describe the Characteristics of the Orishas

                          Enrinle (Inle) and Abatan: Allies of Oshoosi

                                                                                         *                                                          

fr/musique-cubaine-orishas-mineurs.php

                                                                                                                       *

http://agolaroye.com/Inle.php

                                                                                                                       *

http://divinemoon.tumblr.com/post/55490927883/inle-the-orisha-who-represents-health-and-all

                                                                                                                       *

http://cubayoruba.blogspot.com/2007/01/inle.html

                                                                                                                       *

http://altreligion.about.com/od/mythologicalfigures/a/Ibeyi-Inle-Obatala.htm

                                                                                                                       *

http://cfbrown.tumblr.com/post/45734487063/erinle-also-known-as-inle-or-eyinle-is-an-orisha

                                                                                                                       *

http://iusocha.blogspot.com/2012/05/inle.html

                                                                                                                       *

https://ifamatters.wordpress.com/erinle/

                                                                                                                       *

https://sites.google.com/site/theyorubareligiousconcepts/ibu-kole-s-message-to-olodumare/olodumare-talks-to-ibu-kole/ibu-kole-s-return-to-the-kingdom/yemaya-meets-erinle

                                                                                                                       *

http://www.beudeeful.com/2014/02/yoruba-african-orishas-erinle.html

                                                                                                                       *

http://www.ecured.cu/index.php/Inle             (Cuban revolutionario orisha)

                                                                                                                       *

https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?id=67238528419&story_fbid=10153149392968420

                                                                                                                       *

https://ileashe.wordpress.com/tag/inle/

                                                                                                                       *

http://furius.ca/santeriadb/orisha/inle.html

                                                                                                                       *

http://www.tnrelaciones.com/cm/preguntas_y_respuestas/content/358/4394/es/cuales-son-las-aflicciones-que-protege-el-orisha-inle.html

 


                                                                                               *                                        

          Study  Notes for the Orisha Òshóòsi

 

                    Compiled by Alashe Michael Oshoosi, Omo L'Ode Ti'wale* 

                                                                                          *                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                            © Michael omo'Oshoosi, 2015

                                                                                                                                                                        (Michael F. Wright Ph.D., J.D.)

                                                                                                                                                                                All Rights Reserved

                   (*"son-owner of the authoritative ashe of the Great Hunter has come home").                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                         By Permission of Photographer

Representation of "Timi Ede," the Oshoosi royalist of Yoruba legendary    fame who "hits the house with arrows (ofa) of fire"  and is the owner        (onimogala) of the bushbuck's antlers. (Mason, J. Orin Orisha, p.99).