RA or RE

                        as  "Khepri" or "Khepera"

                                                   (rising sun)



            "AIR" over the lush "Nile" (the HAPY) valley at sunrise.



               "Earth"  = in KMT  (land of 'black soil)."


         Nubian village

       Entering on camel-back at Aswan 


                      KEMETIC YOGA

      (Yoga images are numerous in heiroglyphs as yoga began in KMT

         This is an image of childbirth associated with a seated yoga position) 



  Nubian kids at play; Aswan, Egypt



                  The God of  the watery "Nile" River

     (The Upper Nubian neter responsible for flooding the Nile  plain annually

         was called Anukis, while in Upper Egypt she was called Satis)        


Aswan at Sunset


Entry in a Nubian Village on Camel-Back

Endnote #1 


See "Orin Orisha" by Olorisha John Mason (end note section on Oduduwa & Obatala) and "Igbo- Ukwu: An Account of Archaeological Discoveries in Easter Nigeria" by  Thurston Shaw  for  an account of  the 10,000 year old pre-history of west African--proto-Yoruba, Igbo cultures and Nok bronze-age civilizations in west Africa.


Endnote #2


This is the critical linguistic map (courtesy Wikipedia) that shows the dis- tribution of languages in the northeast quadrant of the African continent in the predynastic period of KMT.                                                                                          

                  Ancient Language Dispersion, Bronze Age, in Africa. 


Notice  that  there  are  no  lines  of  language migration from  KMT in prehistoric  times except to the areas that would, during the Mid- dle Kingdom, become the "Semitic" languages of Mesopotamia ar- ound 2,500 BCE.  In the Common Era  (i.e., since  the  putative birth of Christ) there were linguistic  and  cultural  migrations  across  the  Sahil  and  savanah  areas  bordering  the  Sahara  desert  from east-central Africa into far west Africa (e.g., into the Wolof language of Senegal) but  not  nearly  as  much  into  the forested  areas of  the lands  that are now called Nigeria. Similarly, during the Common Era there were massive "Bantu" migrations  from  the  area that is  now now  called "Cameroon" over the entirety of central, south-west and southest Africa.


As  important,  this map shows  that all  modern  languages (and, by proxy,  all neolithic cultures, originated in the east and west-central "Afro-Asiatic"language groups 10,000 years or more ago.That is, the important thing to remember is that all of the linguistic and cultural groups of current relevance originated in central Africa--around the continent's "great lakes" (depicted in the map below as the Omotic- Cushitic homeland). Africa has 56 countries comprised of an estima- ted 3,000 ethnic groups and between one to two thousand languag- es (many, of course, have extinguished or are marginal at this point).


It  is this  nexus that  people who  believe that  KMT culture was the source of the culture of west Africans are missing. KMT and west Af- rica both derived from the same source--central Africa; with one lea- ving permanent written records,in respect of the former, and the ot- her leaving permanent oral records, in respect of the latter.  


Endnote  3


What did ancient Egyptian language sound like? No one knows. But

intelligent conjectural approximations have been made. The issue is

which vowels go into which places inside words that are written only

with consonants.  Some scholars did this in order to imagine the an-

swers. They took the known sounds of the related languages and put their vowels into written Egyptian words. They then made cor-

rections, e.g., in many cases, changing many "a's" to "o's" and "u's"

because the Coptic vowels did not match the ancient KMT equival- ent  words. This, for example, is how "atts" became "otts" and then

later to "ods" and, finally, in Yoruba to become (or started out, if the reverse cultural trajectory is presumed to be the reverse!) as "Odu." 

                                         KMT LANGUAGE RELATIVES


  Amazigh            Chadic              EGYPTIAN           Cushidic              Omotic

  (Northwest Africa)                                 (Lake Chad area)                                                    (KMT)                                                (Southern Sudan)                                    (Ethiopia, Somalia)


                                     KMT LANGUAGE DESCENDANTS


                                                             Old KMT

                                                          Middle KMT

                                                             Late KMT



                                                                                                                                        (Related to Greek and Aramaic)

        See "What Ancient Egyptian Sounded Like" at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-K5OjAkiEA

CNN News  misleadingly  reported that  "the  voice" of a 3,000 year old  mummy was  reproduced  by scientists. In  fact, an  MRI  of  the voice box of a mummy was"3-D printed" using modern computer and audio technology (similar to the technique where artificial voices  are manufactured for  recordings)  and  then subjected to a forced air stream so that the sound "a-eh"(uttered  as a single vowel) was made. And that was it. Making such a sound from  an  inanimate ob- ject--e.g., such as a dead chicken the chest of which is compressed or a human corpse passing gases through the vocal apparatus after death--is hardly spoken "speech."  


See https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/23/world/egyptian-mummy-voice-from-the-dead-scn/index.html


It remains unknown and impossible to ever know how actual  Egypt- ian  speech  sounded  given  how  complex  is speech  production (es- pecially from a corpse who's tongue had also rotted away).


Endnote #4


The best argument for why and how "black west and central African cultures were not highly influenced by KMT culture lies in the thes- es that go some like this:


'...There are no camels. Camels came into Egypt around 500 BCE...The directions to the western Sahara were considered by the Egyptians as a place of death, and a place where evil spirits lived. Generally, the Egyptians could not travel more than 125 miles into the Sahara or less in the great desert sea, because donkeys could only make 9 miles a day, and carry a burden of 136 pounds. And they had to drink water at least every three days and, therefore could carry no loads more than 125 miles past the last oasis (Kharga, Dakia, Siwa, Bahar-

eeya, and Farafra). Please see "Black Genesis: The Prehistoric Origi- ns of Ancient Egypt." Robert Bauval’s thesis  is this. Also, it is note- worthy is the belief that the oldest "kingdoms" on earth were Nub- ians and date back to 5,900 BCE. (See Boyce Rensberger,  The New York Times, March 1, 1979). The headline: “Nubian Monarchy Called Oldest”. Much of this history--at least its northern borders, was drowned by the Aswan damn.


Endnote #5


Relegated to the realm of archaeological heresy, despite a wealth of hard  scientific  evidence,  the  theory that  an advanced  civilization of black Africans settled in the Sahara long before Pharaonic Egypt existed has been dismissed and even condemned by conventional Egyptologists, archaeologists, and the Egyptian government. Uncov- ering com- pelling new evidence, Egyptologist Robert Bauval and as- trophysicist Thomas Brophy present the anthropological, climatol- ogical, archaeological, geological, and genetic research supporting this hugely debated theory of  the  black African origin of Egyptian civilization.  Revealing these "Star People" as the true founders of ancient Egyptian civilization, this book completely rewrites the his- tory of world civilization, placing black Africa back in its rightful place at the center of mankind's origins.


Building upon extensive studies from the past four decades and their own archaeoastronomical and hieroglyphic research, the aut- hors show how the early black culture known as the Cattle People not only domes- ticated cattle but also had a sophisticated grasp of astronomy; created plentiful rock art at Gilf Kebir and Gebel Uwain- at; had trade routes to the Mediterranean coast, central Africa, and the Sinai; held spiritual and occult ceremonies; and constructed a stone calendar circle and megaliths at the ceremonial site of Nabta Playa  reminiscent of  Stonehenge,  yet  much  older. (This)  reveals black Africa to be at the genesis of ancient civilization and the hum- an story . Examines extensive studies into the lost civilization of the "Star People" by renowned anthropologists, archaeologists, genetic scientists, and cultural historians as well as the authors' archaeo- astronomy and hieroglyphics research deciphers the history behind the mysterious Nabta Playa ceremonial area and its stone calendar circle and megaliths.


The hunter-gatherer peoples of what was called, prior to about 1,500 BC, the "Green Sahara" (located in the area of the south-cen- tral Sahara desert and its bordering savannah and sahel transversi- ble grasslands and wooded zones) totally dominated west and cen- tral Africa's humanity throughout the entire neolithic age. Depend- ing on the extent of the aridization of the desert, various groupings of them migrated throughout west and far west Africa. And also from there, i.e., from the shrub and grassland savannah of western central Africa, back down into central Africa (from whence they had come during the stone ages and again during the pastoral neolithic period). These migrations took place between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE and gave rise to the great Ba'Ntu migrations from the (now) east- ern Nigeria and Cameroonian areas onward throughout all of central and southern Africa. (see "Pre-Historic West Africa," Wikipedia). 


Source:  Wikipedia

.                        ORISHA, NETERU AND KEMET

                                                                                                                     © ALASHE MICHAEL OSHOOSI, 2017

                                                                                                              (MICHAEL F. WRIGHT PH.D., J.D.)


The “Neteru,” from  which we  derive  the word  “nature,” are  the  deities  of  an- cient Egypt (KMT). They are believed to have been instrumental in creating the Universe  and  are associated  in many  cases with  the  fundamental  forces and phenomena  of  nature (e.g., water,  air,  fire  and earth). They were depicted as human in form but with the heads, wings and body appendages of animals. And they could be appealed to for aid in life to overcome adversities and to gain ad- vantages. This could be called the "animalistic" principle in the KMT religion cal- led the "Shetaut Neter." Mortuaries during the whole of KMT's history were em-

bellished (spiritually lit up) with hundreds of thousands of mummified animals.

It has been estimated that there were over seventy million mummies left over

from the ancient classical Egyptian period of 3,500 to 0 BCE (obviously, mostly animals).


Similarly, in Orisha-Ifa religion (Yoruba), there are deities that are central to the creation  and  to  the advent of  humanity  that  are  called  “orishas” ("selected heads"). And  they  too  are  considered  ‘forces’ or  phenomena  of  nature. Now, while they are not usually depicted nor carved as animals, per se, they are asso- ciated with favored animals (avatars, oriles) that reflect some of their charact- eristics. In KMT, the names “Heru,” “Aset,” “Ausar,” “Ra,” “Set,” “Nun,” “Shu” and so on, are quite familiar to the students of KMT culture. Similarly, in the Yoruba-Ifa ("orisha") religion of west Africa and the African diapora the names  “Oba- tala," ”Yemoja,” ”Oshun,” ”Shango,” ”Oshoosi,” “Elegua,” and “Ogun,” for  exam- ple, are known to its practitioners, among many others.


It is probable that our west and central true African ancestors--speakers of the

Kwa-Benue tongues of the Chadic  language branch of  the  Niger-Congo mega-language group (from whence, for example, the Yoruba language and names ar- ise) share  common central  African  ancestors  along  with our  Nilotic  (Nubian) African "first cousins" of the Sudan. The cultural history and the precursors to today's "Ife-Yoruba" civilization (Nok  and Igbo culture) in west  Africa, go  back 9,000 years and as much as 40,000 years in the view of some scholars. (Please see Endnote #1), but most of it is unaccounted for in writing because written record- ing--ineffective there--does not last in riverine and tropical-damp environments.


Thus, both the Bantu and Chadic language groups like those of the Niger-Benue confluence (near what is now Abuja, Nigeria) and the coastal heavily rain fores- ted areas of west Africa, on the one hand, as well as the ancient peoples of KMT (who, by  the way, were further away from our  joint  central  African and Sudanic areas of origination--the White Nile--than were west Africans), on the other,both derive from the ancient cultures, religions and languages of the ancient peoples  of the Great Central Lakes regions of Central Africa (Uganda and the Congo).

Because linguistic etymology is exceedingly tricky there is no telling which way

word stocks actually moved between cultures--especially if migrations are invol-

ved without serious authentication among linguists, archeologists, and antropol-



These then are the  people who  birthed the prescient cultures of the south Sud- an and west-central Ethiopia, as described above, and who, in turn, bifurcated in- to those that went west into west Africa and those (Nubians) who went north- east into north Africa (KMT).  To complete the circle, additionally, many cultural ideas and trade made their ways from west and central Africa to the horn of east African (now Somalia) and, from there, by further trade, into Punt, Nubia, and (ul- timately) into KMT and the Levant. This reflected a multi-thousand year history

of trade and expropriation of gold, textiles, minerals, and mercenaries (e.g. the

Pitati archers used by Weni of the 6th Dynasty of KMT around 2,300 BCE). The

Nubians for at least 8,000 years were known to be the "Ta Seti" (land of the long

bowmen), and archery itself goes back 70,000 years. (See Wikipedia on Nubian


In fact, a spokesman for the Ooni of Ile Ife (the spiritual capital of  Yoruba's Ori-

sha/Ifa religion) says in the narration of a publicity video entitled "The House of Oduduwa," which celebrates the life and mission of the current Ooni of Ile Ife HRH Ooni Adeyeye Ogunwusi Ojaja II, in commenting on the grand cultural his- tory of Ife civilization, shows maps  describing the putative theory that ancient civilization started in Ile Ife and moved eastward into the south Sudan (and from there to other places like Kemet) and, only later, received back from the east return cultural influences. (See Endnote #2)                                                                                                                                                                             (See https://mail.yahoo.com/d/folders/1/messages/AODiOR4wrZCkXhq69QBdw AfUih0?.src=fp).   


For example, back to our Nilotic (Nubian) cousins, we can find in their area of the Sudan the neolithic site of Nabta Playa (as well as Wadi el Akhdar and Saruab). . This 10 mile square area of religious  ritual venues (stone formations) was constructed by nomatic cattle and goat-herding people from 13,000 to 7,000 years ago. Their sites contain stone markers that point  to Thuban (the then "North Star") in the constellation Draco  which was the only stable celestial point-of-reference for their calendars.  Ptah was  associated with the North Pole and Khonshu, of the south pole, served equally as the creator God of Man and the universe. Both had seven sons--the Universe's architect apprentices. One must remember that the people saw their source in the south; i.e., lower and upper Nubia, with the Mediterranean coast as sort of the "back door" or even "back water" of the culture--where things flowed into eternity (and from whence Mediterranean-rim invaders had to be repulsed).


Flowing from this, but later for the ancient priests of KMT, the North Star was considered near the entry-way into the Duat (the Afterworld) because Polaris was moving into the celestial north pole because of precession.  And was thus connected to the idea of immortality. Similarly,  the regular disapperance and re-appearance of celestial constellations gave rise in these cultures to the ideas of reincarnation and astrology. In KMT, for example, the reincarnated soul might come back into the "Ta" (the World) as a re-born person or might be re-born into the paradise of Eternity of the Duat itself.


In ancient times, these proto-Nubian-Nilotics  also revered the cow and buried ritually sacrificed cows in underground graves. These  are the true sources of KMT  religions. And  their  sacred cow  (Mother-Goddess)  gave  rise to the KMT cults of Mehurt-Hathor; the first of its classical religious cults--worshipping the mother  cow  and  bull  son (Hapi or "Apis" bull--of  KMT's  five  major  religious trends that  connected  Ptah in  Memphis to  Osiris). The people  here  in Nabta Playa, re-discovered in 1974, also constructed the world's first underground sac- red architectured chambers.                                                                           


This is why I believe that the more accurate depiction of African history regard- ing   KMT and   west  Africa  would  show  that  we  both  have  common  cultural  roots in deep Central Africa and in the Sudan. And, therefore, that these peoples are our historical cousins (our "second " cousins); not our direct (Yoruba or Afri- can-American)  ancestors  as  many who  romanticize  their  identifications  with  "classical societies Egypt" --as great as they were--are inclined to do.  (See linguistic map--Endnote 2, and Endnote 4 for why Egyptian culture was not highly significant to west and central African history).


Connoting  periodic  migrations  in  the  westward  direction  along the savannah, Yoruba lore  also suggests  that some  of their legendary  cultural  forebearers  brought  culture  and  religion  from the southern  Sudan into west Africa. That is, they brought them as recently as a thousand years ago from the area at the latitude of Nabta Playa  (pre-Kemetic Sudan) that was, itself, once temperate and fertile grassland instead of the stark desert that it is now. So west African culture had both direct (i.e., directly from central Africa) and indirect sourcing  from across the savannah from east to west across Africa.  This is the nature of the legendary story of"Oduduwa," who is said to have fled the "east" (i.e., Sudan, not "Arabia" nor "Egypt")--chased by Muslims--and conquered Ife civilization in "Nigeria," and founded modern Yoruba culture.


Of note too is that into Nigeria there also came far west African culture--i.e., cul- ture from the upper Atlantic coast of today's Senegal, Gambia, Liberia and Guin- ea regions. The famed anthropologist Melville Herskovits described this third source coming from the far Atlantic and Guinean areas, into the Ivory, Gold and Slave coast traditions as Africa's "Atlantic (coast) culture" that, as mentioned, also contributed to the history of the areas now called "Nigeria."


For example, west-central African languages like  Yoruba, Wolof, Dogon, etce- tera, share  many  words  with  the  Egyptian language  speakers  of  ancient KMT and  they  with  us.* For  instance,  from “Shu” (a  KMT  deity of  the  air,  atmos- phere, breath  and  fluidity  we) in Yoruba,  share a  common  root  in  the  names “Eshu,” or “Oshun.” Or, as with the word “Nefer”  we share the word “Ifa” which refers to the divination practice and oral corpus  (the oral library) of  Yoruba  lit- erature  and  religion.  And divination for God, Olodumare (yes, even God goes to Ifa for insight at times) occurs in the "House of Olodumare" which in Yoruba rel- igious discourse is said to be the "Apata Olodumare" which is associated with "house" or "apa," and "ta"  which could be connected to the "house of Ptah" lin- guistically. In a  similar  vein, it  has  been urged  that the word "Bhuddha" also comes from "Ptah." (Incidentally, some claim that the  word Ifa comes from the Arabic word "fa'l " which means "omen" in Arabic astrological divination prac-

tices). Similarly, the word  "odu"  or "odus," familiar to Orisha-Ifa practitioners, probably is related to the KMT word "atts." 


An explanation is in order: In the Egyptian Afterworld (Daut) there were twelve zones that corresponded to the twelve hours that the boat of Ra (and its dead souls) traversed its river-of-the-dead. (See the text  "Shat Am  Taut"). Each zone had different challenges and monsters to contend with. But they also had help- ful deities and protector animals that could be invoked if the dead soul knew the right incantations. Such deities as these were in the 9th hour of the Afterworld.


These twelve deities were called "atts"--who  were among  the helpful ones on the sojourn--and were encountered as one proceeded to eternal judgment bef- ore  the  throne of  Ausar (Osiris). Linguistically, these atts  became "otts" then "ods" and then--in west Africa--"odus"; either twelve  or sixteen  major ones of them (depending on the local culture). These odus--as helpful deities guiding us into the future--are what Yoruba olorishas (priests), babalawos and iyan'ifas are invoking the guidance of when they do Yoruba-Ifa divination (whether the Afri - can continental--"Ishe-she Alagba'ye--or the Cuban or the Brasilian versions) for their clients. But (consistent with our thesis)it may be that the dispersion of this

word "atts" or "ods" went from west to east (and northeast) across Africa just as well!


The roots of "ods" or "otts" may just as well have originated outside of KMT, e.g., in west Africa and the Sudan and was later incorporated into ancient Egytian.  


We also shared similar deities: "Ogun" and "Obatala" with Ptah, "Orunmila" with Tehuti or Thoth (and with Fa, a KMT neter of  destiny), "Oshun" with Anat, Bast, and  Aset,  '"Ori"  with  Horus, "Yemoja"  with  Mehurt,  Mut and Hathor,  "Iku" (death) with Seker, " "Shango" with Set (former king of upper KMT who was given thunder by Ptah as a consolation for losing his battle with Horus; in order to keep earthlings in fear when needed. See the  text "The  Contending  of  Hor us and Set"  from  a 12th  dynasty  story), and "Oshuosi" ("Oshoosi") with Osiris, Shu,  and Shesera (Ra's  protector  archer  in  the  Duat). Also, the Yoruba word for descending in to Underworld is sokale which is related to the KMT god of death "Sokar" and the Greek "sokaris." (See, Yoruba Religious Discourse, infra,  ft. nt # 4). 


Powerfully  righteous speech is  called "ofo ashe" in  Yoruba-Ifa  religion and cor- responds  with "medhu neter," "neter mehdu," and "khu  hekua" (magical incant ations) in the ancient KMT language. "Hekua" (and Eepaa) is still a salutation to Yoruba king-of-the-orishas Obatala. Our word "awo" is the equivalent of "sheti" (mystery) in  KMT  terms. And,  quite  common  in  Yoruba  religion  is  the  word  "to"  (pronounced "taw"), meaning  "truth"  or "otito" (truth) that is often said to be related to the KMT deity "Thoth,"the penultimate scribe (writer) God of Truth, Wisdom, Ethics and Science. Finally, the neter Sekhmet is a lioness war- rior protector of the Gods; the consort of Ptah, and the daughter of Ra and Hat- hor.  I believe that she has more in common with Ogun than with Oshoosi.


Since no one knows how KMT language actually sounded--with the few pockets of people speaking Aramaic  in  Palestine or  in  present  day  Egypt  or  Ethiopia

probably being the closet sounding to it (though still 5,000 years removed from the actual original speakers)--though it now can be read quite easily, it may be the case that the best  oral and  practical repository of ancient Egyptian rituals, incantations, curses,  liturgy, verbal  spells (in other words, the actual ritual ver- bal sound practice of ancient Egyptian religion) yet  lie in practices  and  langua- ges  of  traditional  African  religions  like  Yoruba-Ifa (especially). That  is, from among people for whom there has remained a constantly spoken and understood linguistic  legacy  that  goes back to  the latter  period of  dynastic KMT--at least four thousand years ago--to a time that embraced ancient Nubia-Sudanese, Sum- eria (north Semitic and Elamitic) and even Hebraic--and all related languages--as well. (See End Note #3)


*For understanding connections between the Yoruba language and that of ancient KMT see Lucas, J. Olomide, The Religion of the Yorubas, CMS Bookshop, Lagos, Nigeria, 1948 and Modupe Oduyoye, The Vocabulary of Yoruba Religious Discouse, for the etymological connections between Yoruba  and ancient "Omotic" (and Cushitic) and Egyptian languages. The language dispersion map at End Note #2 illustrates what the true bases of languages and culture in the northeast quadrant of Africa actually was prior to prior to the dynasties of KMT.